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Identification and Creation

Object Number
Small Goat Pendant
Work Type
10th-8th century BCE
Creation Place: Ancient & Byzantine World, Asia, Luristan (Iran)
Find Spot: Middle East, Iran, Western Iran
Iron Age
Persistent Link

Physical Descriptions

Copper-tin-antimony alloy
Cast, lost-wax process
3.5 x 3.1 x 1.1 cm (1 3/8 x 1 1/4 x 7/16 in.)
Technical Details

Chemical Composition: ICP-MS/AAA data from sample, Copper-Tin-Antimony Alloy:
Cu, 91.31; Sn, 5.31; Pb, 0.56; Zn, less than 0.002; Fe, less than 0.01; Ni, 0.05; Ag, 0.03; Sb, 2.33; As, 0.39; Bi, less than 0.025; Co, 0.018; Au, less than 0.01; Cd, less than 0.00

J. Riederer

Chemical Composition: XRF data from Tracer
Alloy: Mixed Copper Alloy
Alloying Elements: copper, tin, antimony
Other Elements: lead, iron, nickel, silver, arsenic

K. Eremin, January 2014

Technical Observations: The patinas of these small goat pendants (170.1972, 174.1972, 176.1972, 177.1972, 187.1972, and 1992.256.28) are mostly green with black corrosion products; some have brown accretions. The rough corrosion products obscure some parts of their surfaces, but in other areas, the surfaces are well preserved. Small losses reveal significant deep mineralization.

The pendants were cast from wax models formed individually by hand. Where preserved, the surfaces appear very smooth and perhaps burnished. There may be some cold work finishing in the details of the necks and faces of some figures, but most of the surfaces are only smoothed and have no decoration.

Henry Lie (submitted 2012)


Recorded Ownership History
Kurt H. Weil, Montclair, NJ (1927-1992), by descent; to Kathleen Weil-Garris Brandt, New York (1992-2023), gift; to the Harvard Art Museums.

Acquisition and Rights

Credit Line
Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Gift of Professor Kathleen Weil-Garris Brandt
Accession Year
Object Number
Asian and Mediterranean Art

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Subjects and Contexts

  • Ancient Bronzes

Related Works

Verification Level

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