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Identification and Creation

Object Number
Fung Ming Chip (Feng Mingqiu) 馮明秋, Chinese (born 1951)
Chan (Better known in English by the Japanese term "Zen")
Other Titles
Original Language Title: 禪
Work Type
painting, album leaf
Creation Place: East Asia, China, Hong Kong
Persistent Link

Physical Descriptions

Album leaf: ink on paper; with one seal of the artist
calligraphy proper: 45.2 x 46 cm (17 13/16 x 18 1/8 in.)
mounting: 70.1 x 50 cm (27 5/8 x 19 11/16 in.)


Recorded Ownership History
Fung Ming Chip, Hong Kong (2009-2010), sold; to Susan L. Beningson, New York, 2010, gift; to Harvard Art Museums, 2010.

This work was created by Fung Ming Chip in Hong Kong in 2009.

Acquisition and Rights

Credit Line
Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Gift of Susan L. Beningson and Steve Arons in memory of Renée Beningson
Accession Year
Object Number
Asian and Mediterranean Art

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This square album leaf is inscribed with a single character reading "Chan". The character, which is better known in the West by the Japanese pronunciation "Zen," refers to a meditative sect of Buddhism that claimed--and still claims--numerous adherents in both China and Japan. The text was composed and inscribed on this album leaf by Fung Ming Chip (standard Mandarin transcription: Feng Mingqiu). The character is written in cursive, or running, script ("xingshu") in a manner that the artist characterizes as "splash script." The artist created this calligraphic work by splashing very wet, black ink at the top of the album leaf and then, using a brush loaded with water, by inscribing the character within the main and largest portion of the splash, creating a work in which the character appears pale gray against the black splash. Smaller dots of ink radiate out from the main splash. This calligraphic work is not dated; however, the artist stated to the curator that he created it in 2009. This calligraphic work is not signed, but it includes one seal of the artist, which identifies it as a work of Fung Ming Chip. The seal, which the artist himself carved, can be described as follows:

Square, red, relief seal reading "Dui Cuo Yi Sheng"
[Note: The seal reading Dui Cuo Yi Sheng can be translated as "Right and wrong in life"]

Exhibition History

  • 32Q: 2600 East Asian, Japanese, Chinese and Korean, Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, 12/04/2023 - 06/03/2024

Verification Level

This record has been reviewed by the curatorial staff but may be incomplete. Our records are frequently revised and enhanced. For more information please contact the Division of Asian and Mediterranean Art at