- Identification and Creation
- Object Number
- Male Mummiform Votive Statuette
- Work Type
- sculpture, statuette
- late 5th-2nd century BCE
- Creation Place: Ancient & Byzantine World, Europe, Hispania
- Iron Age
- Persistent Link
- Physical Descriptions
- Leaded bronze
- Cast, lost-wax process
- 8 cm (3 1/8 in.)
- Technical Details
Chemical Composition: XRF data from Tracer
Alloy: Leaded Bronze
Alloying Elements: copper, tin, lead
Other Elements: iron, nickel, silver, antimony
K. Eremin, January 2014
Technical Observations: The patina is dark green with light brown burial accretions. Small black spots are modern copper sulfide corrosion products. The surface is well preserved. The object is a solid cast, probably from a model made by working directly in wax. The mouth, eyes, and most or all of the incised lines were probably made by cold working.
Henry Lie (submitted 2011)
- National Archaeological Museum of Spain, (by 1933), by exchange; to the Fogg Art Museum.
Excavated at the sanctuary site of Collado de los Jardines, Jaén, in the early 1900s.
Note: In exchange for a Sepulchral slab from the Cemetery at Sahagun, Leon, Spain.
- Acquisition and Rights
- Credit Line
- Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Gift of The Republic of Spain through the Museo Arqueologico Nacional and Professor A. Kingsley Porter
- Accession Year
- Object Number
- Asian and Mediterranean Art
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Published Catalogue Text: Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes at the Harvard Art Museums
The face of this figure is turned upward. An incised line around the head from the brow to the nape of the neck indicates that the figure wears some type of close-fitting, undecorated skullcap. The features of the round, broad face are molded; the eyes are widely spaced and deep set, the nose is broad, and the mouth is a thin line turned slightly upward. The chin is pointed upward. The neck is wide and round. The upper torso is wider, to indicate where the arms would be, tapering toward the feet. Incisions indicate that the body of the figure is fully wrapped in cloth (1). The cloth forms a V-shape on the top at the front and back; it wraps diagonally around the torso from the right shoulder to down over the left elbow. There is a faint line on the right side indicating a seam. The hem of the garment is indicated by a line around the ankles. The feet are joined, with an incision on the top, bottom, and back indicating their separation. The toes are also indicated by incision.
Thousands of small, anthropomorphic copper alloy statuettes and anatomical votives have been recovered from remote sanctuary sites in south-central Spain, particularly Collado de los Jardines and Castellar de Santisteban, but it is not certain to which god or gods they were dedicated (2). Many of the statuettes depict individuals, some of whom are represented in poses of prayer or offering (3). Some are very abstract and schematically rendered, while others wear identifiable contemporary clothing (4). In spite of the similarity of the votives, there is nothing to indicate that the intention behind each offering was the same. This example is most likely from the cave sanctuary of Collado de los Jardines near Santa Elena, Jaén. It was given to Harvard in 1933 by the Republic of Spain in exchange for the cover of the eleventh-century sarcophagus of Alfonso Ansúrez from Sahagún, León, which was then in the collection of the Fogg Art Museum (5).
1. Compare L. Prados Torreira, Exvotos ibericos de bronce del Museo Arqueologico Nacional (Madrid, 1992) 183, nos. 247-54, although the arms are more distinct on the Madrid examples; another comparable piece, ibid. 196, no. 284, is more explicitly mummiform.
2. See F. Álvarez-Ossorio, Bronces ibéricos o hispánicos del Museo Arqueológico Nacional (Madrid, 1935) 20-27; id., Catálogo de los exvotos de bronce ibéricos (Madrid, 1941); L. Prados Torreira, “Los exvotos anatomicos del santuario iberico de Collado de los Jardines (Sta. Elena, Jaén),” Trabajos de prehistoria 48 (1991): 313-32; ead. 1992 (supra 1); ead., “Los santuarios ibéricos: Apuntes para el desarrollo de una arqueología del culto,” Trabajos de prehistoria 51.1 (1994): 127-40; and G. Nicolini et al., El santuario ibérico de Castellar, Jaén: Intervenciones arqueológicas 1966-1991 (Seville, 2004) 160-64.
3. For discussions of the statuettes’ poses and gestures, see G. Nicolini, “Gestes et attitudes cultuels des figurines de bronze ibériques,” Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez 4 (1968): 27-50; and C. Rueda Galán, “La mujer sacralizada: La presencia de las mujeres en los santuarios (lectura desde los exvotos de bronce iberos),” Complutum 18 (2007): 227-35.
4. See, for example, 1933.134.
5. See “Collections and Critiques,” The Harvard Crimson, Dec. 12, 1935; and Á. Franco, “Arte medieval leonés fuera de España,” in La dispersión de objetos de arte fuera de España en los siglos XIX y XX, eds. F. Pérez Mulet and I. Socias Batet (Barcelona, 2011) 93-132, esp. 113-16.
Lisa M. Anderson
- Publication History
"Collections and Critiques", The Harvard Crimson, Dec. 12, 1935
Lourdes Prados Torreira, "La coleccion de bronces ibericos del Peabody Museum de Harvard", Bronces y Religion Romana: Actas del XI Congreso Internacional de Bronces Antiguos, Madrid, Mayo-Junio 1990, ed. J. Arce and F. Burkhalter, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Madrid, 1993), 361-67, p. 364, no. 14, fig. 2.
Robert H. Tykot, Lourdes Prados Torreira, and Miriam S. Balmuth, "Iberian bronze figurines: technological and stylistic analysis", From the Parts to the Whole: Acta of the 13th International Bronze Congress, ed. Carol C. Mattusch, Amy Brauer, and Sandra E. Knudsen, Journal of Roman Archaeology (Portsmouth, RI, 2000), vol. 2, p. 27-30, no. 122, fig. 2.
Ángela Franco, "Arte medieval leonés fuera de España", La dispersión de objetos de arte fuera de España en los siglos XIX y XX, ed. Fernando Pérez Mulet and Immaculada Socias Batet, Edicions Universitat Barcelona (Barcelona, 2011), 93-132, p. 115 n.64.
- Subjects and Contexts
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