Photo © President and Fellows of Harvard College
Identification and Creation
Object Number
John Singer Sargent, American (Florence, Italy 1856 - 1925 London, England)
Madame Gautreau (Madame X)
Work Type
c. 1883
Persistent Link
Physical Descriptions
Watercolor and graphite on white wove paper
35.5 x 25.2 cm (14 x 9 15/16 in.)
Madame Ernest Duez; Sortais, Paris; M. Knoedler and Co., New York; purchased from them by Grenville L. Winthrop through Martin Birnbaum, 1933; his bequest to the Fogg Art Museum, 1943.
Acquisition and Rights
Credit Line
Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Bequest of Grenville L. Winthrop
Accession Year
Object Number
European and American Art
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Publication History

[Reproduction only], Bulletin of the Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts (Columbus, OH, October 1933)., repr. on cover

Martin Birnbaum, John Singer Sargent, January 12, 1856-April 15, 1925: A Conversation, William E. Rudge's Sons (New York, NY, 1941), p. 62, repr.

Doreen Bolger Burke, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Volume III: A Catalogue of Works by Artists Born between 1846 and 1864, ed. Kathleen Luhrs, The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Princeton University Press (New York, 1980), pp. 229, 232

John Singer Sargent, His Own Work, exh. cat., Coe Kerr Gallery, Inc. (New York, NY, 1980), in checklist, unpaginated

Annette Blaugrund, "'Sunshine Captured': The Development and Dispersement of Sargent's Watercolors", exh. cat., ed. Patricia Hills, Whitney Museum of American Art (New York, NY, 1986), p. 215

Heather McPherson, Fin-de-Siècle Faces: Portraiture in the Age of Proust, Visual Arts Gallery (Birmingham, AL, 1988), fig. 22

Trevor J. Fairbrother, John Singer Sargent, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (New York, NY, 1994), pp. 51; repr. in color, p. 50

Elaine Kilmurray and Richard Ormond, John Singer Sargent, exh. cat., Tate Gallery Publishing Limited (London, England, 1998), p. 101, under no. 26

Richard Ormond and Elaine Kilmurray, John Singer Sargent: The Early Portraits, Yale University Press (New Haven, CT and London, England, 1998), pp. 113 - 118, repr. in color p. 118, fig. 117

Carl Little, The Watercolors of John Singer Sargent, University of California Press (Berkeley, CA, 1998), repr. in color, p. 113

Michael Kilian, "It's the Summer of Sargent in Boston", Chicago Tribune (Chicago, IL, August 1, 1999), repr.

Christine Temin, "Sargent Season", The Boston Globe Sunday Magazine (Boston, MA, June 27, 1999), ill. on cover, p. 2

Ken Gewertz, "Sargent: Portrait of the Artist in his Workshop", Harvard University Gazette (June 10, 1999), pp. 31, ill. p. 31

Shawn Hill, "Sargent's Sketchy Characters", Bay Windows (Boston, MA, June 17, 1999), reproduced in b/w, Arts section, p. 9

Deborah Davis and Elizabeth Oustinoff, "Madame X Speaks", The Magazine Antiques (November 2003), CLXIV, no. 5, pp. 116-125, pl. VI, detail on cover

Deborah Davis, Strapless: John Singer Sargent and the Fall of Madame X, Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin (New York, 2003), repr. (color) between pp. 152 and 153

Theodore E. Stebbins, Jr., Virginia Anderson, and Kimberly Orcutt, ed., American Paintings at Harvard, Volume Two, Paintings, Drawings, Pastels and Stained Glass by Artists Born 1826-1856, Harvard Art Museums and Yale University Press (U.S.) (Cambridge, MA and New Haven, CT, 2008), p. 301, cat. no. 317, reproduced in color, p. 301

Richard Ormond and Elaine Kilmurray, John Singer Sargent: Figures and Landscapes, 1900-1907, Yale University Press (U.S.) (New Haven and London, 2012), p. 98 (note 6)

Richard Ormond and Elaine Kilmurray, John Singer Sargent: Figures and Landscapes, 1908-1913, Yale University Press (U.S.) (New Haven and London, 2014), p. 103 n. 6

Richard Ormond and Elaine Kilmurray, Sargent: The Watercolors, exh. cat., Dulwich Picture Gallery (London, 2017), pp. 16-17, repr. p. 17 as fig. 4

Exhibition History

Exhibition of Water Colors by John Singer Sargent, Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Columbus, 10/01/1933 - 10/31/1933

Sargent in the Studio: Drawings, Sketchbooks, and Oil Sketches, Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, 06/10/1999 - 09/26/1999

This record has been reviewed by the curatorial staff but may be incomplete. Our records are frequently revised and enhanced. For more information please contact the Division of European and American Art at