Chemical Composition: ICP-MS/AAA data from sample, Leaded Bronze:
Cu, 78.28; Sn, 5.83; Pb, 15.59; Zn, 0.121; Fe, 0.06; Ni, 0.02; Ag, 0.04; Sb, 0.06; As, less than 0.10; Bi, less than 0.025; Co, less than 0.005; Au, less than 0.01; Cd, less than 0.001
Technical Observations: The patina is gray-green with spots of black. The large crack through the head and chest appears to be a casting flaw or the result of corrosion or both. It gives the impression that a layer of bronze with the crack encloses a secondary metal at the interior. Under magnification, however, a bronze alloy continues deep into the crack and appears to be a single casting of one metal.
Although the bronze is heavy and appears to be solid cast, sampling at the lower back revealed that at least the bust section is hollow. Judging from that hole and the cracks in the face, the wall thickness ranges from 2 to 4 mm. Most details were probably in the mold used to make the wax model, but some features, such as the feathers of the crest, are fluid in their line and appear to be created by direct working in the wax model. Circular punch marks (1 mm in diameter) over most of the helmet may be the only cold worked elements. The texture of the corrosion products in the eyes is probably the remains of a secondary metal inlay, which is currently green. Black accretions at many locations are carbonized fragments of wood or grass, presumably related to a fire. A patch (1 x 1.5 cm) at the back of the bust lies in a slight depression and could be a repair of a casting flaw. The hole that it seals could alternatively be an intentional connection to the interior that secured the core and offered a means of removing the core after casting. The diameter of the wire ring matches the shape of the wear on the broken cast loop at the top of the head and appears to be original.
Henry Lie (submitted 2001)