Chemical Composition: ICP-MS/AAA data from sample, Mixed Copper Alloy:
Cu, 78.03; Sn, 2.57; Pb, 3.82; Zn, 14.56; Fe, 0.42; Ni, 0.41; Ag, 0.02; Sb, 0.17; As, less than 0.10; Bi, less than 0.025; Co, less than 0.005; Au, less than 0.01; Cd, 0.004
Chemical Composition: XRF data from Artax 1
Alloying Elements: copper, zinc
Other Elements: tin, iron, nickel
K. Eremin, January 2014
Chemical Composition: XRF data from Artax 2
Alloy: Mixed copper alloy
Alloying Elements: copper, tin, zinc
Other Elements: lead, iron, nickel, silver, antimony, arsenic
K. Eremin, June 2015
Lead Isotope Analysis (Pb, 3.82%):
Pb206/Pb204, 18.05962; Pb207/Pb204, 15.61878; Pb208/Pb204, 38.07377; Pb, 207/Pb206, 0.86485; Pb 208/Pb206, 2.10823; Pb208/Pb207, 2.43769
Technical Observations: The patina is green and light green, with areas of black and spots of red. Brown burial accretions are also present. The corrosion layer is up to 1.5 mm thick in some areas but thin in others. The red cuprite layer typical of ancient copper alloys is often not present under the green layer. However, there is a continuous, thin layer of red within the very thick corrosion layers at the sheep’s front hooves. This deep, clear layering is reasonable indication of long-term burial.
The thick, uneven corrosion layer obscures the detailed character of the surface. The bottom surface of the bottom post is cut off, and there are file marks from smoothing it. This was probably done at the same time as the addition of the modern mounting pin.
The bronze is solid and was cast from a model made directly in wax. Some details, such as the fingers, hair, and eyebrows, were probably enhanced by cold working.
Henry Lie (submitted 2012)