Photo © President and Fellows of Harvard College
Identification and Creation
Object Number
Head of a Lynx with Open Mouth
Work Type
1st-3rd century
Creation Place: Ancient & Byzantine World, Asia
Roman Imperial period
Persistent Link
Physical Descriptions
Leaded bronze
Cast, lost-wax process
3.7 x 4.3 x 4.2 cm (1 7/16 x 1 11/16 x 1 5/8 in.)
Technical Details

Chemical Composition: ICP-MS/AAA data from sample, Leaded Bronze:
Cu, 90.05; Sn, 6.82; Pb, 2.66; Zn, 0.005; Fe, 0.14; Ni, 0.05; Ag, 0.04; Sb, 0.22; As, less than 0.10; Bi, less than 0.025; Co, 0.01; Au, less than 0.01; Cd, less than 0.001
J. Riederer

Chemical Composition: XRF data from Tracer
Alloy: Leaded Bronze
Alloying Elements: copper, tin, lead
Other Elements: iron, antimony
K. Eremin, January 2014

Technical Observations: The patina is reddish brown. The object is a hollow cast, and remnants of core material are present. Most of the fine incised lines depicting fur appear to have been made in the wax model. There are long striations between the high relief hair on the top of the head. A punch was used on the cast metal inside the ears and at the back of the neck. There are also cold-working marks inside the mouth. The uneven finishing of the eye sockets suggests they originally held inlays that have not survived.

Tracy Richardson (submitted 1999)

Charles Dikran Kelekian, New York, NY, (by 1982), by inheritance; to Nancy Rodney Kelekian, New York, NY, (1982-1995), gift; to Harvard University Art Museums, 1995.
Acquisition and Rights
Credit Line
Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Gift of Nanette B. Rodney
Accession Year
Object Number
Asian and Mediterranean Art
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Publication History

Henry Lie and Francesca Bewer, "Ex Aere Factum: Technical Notes on Ancient Bronzes", Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes, ed. Susanne Ebbinghaus, Harvard Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 2014), 38-63, pp. 55-56, fig. 2.12.

Susanne Ebbinghaus, ed., Ancient Bronzes through a Modern Lens: Introductory Essays on the Study of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern Bronzes, Harvard Art Museum/Yale University Press (Cambridge, MA, 2014), pp. 56, 66, fig. 2.12

Exhibition History

32Q: 3440 Near East, Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, 11/16/2014 - 11/16/2016

Subjects and Contexts

Google Art Project

Ancient Bronzes

This record has been reviewed by the curatorial staff but may be incomplete. Our records are frequently revised and enhanced. For more information please contact the Division of Asian and Mediterranean Art at