Chemical Composition: Body
XRF data from Artax 2
Alloy: Leaded Bronze
Alloying Elements: copper, tin, lead
Other Elements: iron, zinc, antimony, arsenic
XRF data from Artax 2
Alloy: Mixed Copper Alloy
Possible Alloying Elements: copper, lead, tin, zinc, silver, antimony, arsenic
Other Elements: iron
Comments: Levels of zinc, arsenic, and silver are consistently higher than in the main alloy; the extent of the corrosion makes exact assessment of alloy type difficult.
K. Eremin, January 2014
Technical Observations: The interior is smooth and closely follows all contours of the exterior, indicating an indirect lost-wax process. Black core remains are present at the opening to the partially hollow tail, at the base above the tang, and at the back of the head. Intact iron chaplets are visible at the interior at both sides, both shoulders, the lower back, and the right side of the head. They are visible as areas of differing coloration at the exterior, but apparently without patches that would hide the hole or underlying iron. The holes at the base of the ears (c. 1 mm in diameter) were drilled rather than cast. The wire inlay at the ears, top of the head, and around the shoulders is green and red and is a mixed copper alloy of differing color. Inlay at the whiskers is black and could be oxidized silver. Corrosion pitting at the center of the top of the head could be related to an attachment, but there is no clear evidence of this, and the interior at this location is smooth and regular in color.
The surface, except for the tangs, is smooth and shiny. It is likely that the corrosion products were scraped almost entirely off and that the dark brown patina with spots of green and red is a modern oxidation. The metal at the tang (7 mm thick) is completely mineralized, as is revealed by a 1.5 cm fragment that has broken off the bottom edge. The left front leg is cracked at many locations, but it does not appear to be repaired. Inlay in the tail and the eyes has been lost, but the remains of fine wire inlay at the whiskers, ears, top of the head, and around the shoulders is partially intact as corrosion products. The earrings at the bottom of both ears have been lost. There are small chip losses at the tips of the ears. Two dents, each 2 cm wide, on the lower left side may be ancient; the metal was malleable when they were made and the corrosion at the exterior is relatively continuous.
Henry Lie (submitted 2001)