- Identification and Creation
Level 3, Room 3610, University Teaching Gallery
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- Physical Descriptions
- Transparent watercolor and brown ink over graphite on cream antique laid paper, remnants of a framing line in brown ink
- 15.3 x 22.4 cm (6 x 8 13/16 in.)
- Inscriptions and Marks
- Signed: Lower right, brown ink : AVE
- inscription: verso, lower left, graphite: 2 Ll. LLG.
- watermark: Countermark PBD, with a double-wired bow on the D; variant of Davies 2007, Cats. 38 and 157; related to Hinterding 2006, vol. 2, p. 88 (probably 1650s or later)
- inscription: verso, lower left, graphite: Bg Wothe L:B:N15
- inscription: verso, lower right, graphite: 50
- collector's mark: verso, lower center, blue ink stamp: L. 3306 (Maida and George Abrams)
- Jacob Hoofman and Pierre Nicolas Quarles van Ufford, Haarlem, sold; [Roos et al., Amsterdam, 19 October 1818, lot E2; to [Van der Willigen] with lot E3 (bought in); by descent to Maria Hoofman, Haarlem; by descent to Louis Jacques Quarles van Ufford, Haarlem, sold; [Van Pappelendam and Schouten, Haarlem], 23 March 1874, lot 4.150; to [F.A.C. Prestel, Frankfurt am Main] with lot 4.149. [Gebr. Douwes, Amsterdam] sold; to Maida and George Abrams, 1964 (L. 3306, verso, lower center); The Maida and George Abrams Collection, 1999.139.
- Published Text
- Drawings from the Age of Bruegel, Rubens, and Rembrandt: Highlights from the Collection of the Harvard Art Museums
- William W. Robinson and Susan Anderson
- Harvard Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 2016)
Catalogue entry no. 34 by William W. Robinson:
Allart van Everdingen introduced the Scandinavian landscape into seventeenth-century Dutch art. Based on his firsthand experience of the Nordic countryside, his paintings depict a wilderness of fir trees, rugged cliffs, boulders, waterfalls, and isolated, weatherbeaten buildings constructed of logs and rough-hewn planks. Most of Everdingen’s early paintings—those that date from 1640 to 1644, prior to his Scandinavian journey—are marine works with rough seas, but they include a river landscape in the style of his second teacher, Pieter de Molijn. (His first, according to Arnold Houbraken, was Roelant Savery.) In 1644, Everdingen, probably sailing on a Dutch merchant vessel engaged in the timber trade, visited Risør and Langesund on the southeastern coast of Norway and the region around Götheburg and north to Trollhättan in western Sweden. Back in the Netherlands by February 1645, he lived in Haarlem until 1652 and then settled permanently in Amsterdam. From 1646, the earliest date on a painting of a Scandinavian scene, until the end of his career, Nordic imagery was the predominant—although not exclusive—subject of his oeuvre.1
In her monograph on Everdingen’s drawings, Alice Davies catalogued 654 works as originals by his hand. Only a few are studies made on the spot during his 1644 Scandinavian trip.2 Those—and others that have not survived—provided the precious stock of motifs he consulted when designing paintings, drawings, and prints of Nordic views.3 Like Molijn (2011.514) and Jan van Goyen (1965.204), Everdingen turned out a remarkable number of finished drawings intended for sale to collectors. He executed autonomous drawings in three media combinations: brown ink and brown wash; gray ink and gray wash; and ink and watercolor. Most are signed with the artist’s AVE monogram. Many were produced as series representing the elements, seasons, or months (1932.206) .4
The Harvard landscape is one of more than one hundred finished watercolors, in various formats, that are known today. Approximately half of these show Nordic imagery. Davies catalogued the Harvard work with fifteen other watercolors of similar dimensions, some of which represent Scandinavian scenes (Fig. 1), while others show Dutch views.5 Most of the watercolors in this group probably date from the 1660s, although the chronology of Everdingen’s works on paper is difficult to establish.6
1 See Alice I. Davies and Frederik J. Duparc, Allart van Everdingen 1621–1675: First Painter of Scandinavian Landscape; Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings (Doornspijk, Netherlands, 2001), for Everdingen’s introduction of Scandinavian landscape into Dutch art, pp. 75–138 and 173–81; early painting and teachers, pp. 51–57 and 75; travels in Norway and Sweden, pp. 26–27 and 164–65; later career and use of Nordic imagery, pp. 26–28, 42, and 75.
2 Alice I. Davies, The Drawings of Allart van Everdingen: A Complete Catalogue, Including the Studies for Reynard the Fox (Doornspijk, Netherlands, 2007), pp. 14–15, 48–49, 61–63, and 68–69.
3 Davies and Duparc, pp. 75–80 and cat. 23, p. 214, and pp. 135–38; Davies, p. 14.
4 See Davies for the artist’s characteristic media, p. 67; AVE monogram, p. 16; use of various series in nature, pp. 89–109.
5 See ibid. for a brief breakdown of Everdingen’s painting types, p. 48; for Davies’s cataloguing of the Harvard work with fifteen others, see p. 52 and cats. 24–39, pp. 166–73. These watercolors all measure—or originally measured—about 155 × 232 mm, so the Harvard composition (153 × 224 mm) has been trimmed on both sides by a few millimeters. A River with Rocky Banks (Fig. 1 here; Davies, cat. 24, p. 166) is in gray and brown ink, transparent watercolor, and black chalk. 155 × 234 mm. Signed, lower center, brown ink, AVE. London, British Museum, 1836,0811.174.
6 Ibid., pp. 10–11 and 52. One work in this group (cat. 38, pp. 172–73) is on a sheet with the same countermark as the Harvard drawing. Davies dates a third watercolor with the same countermark but different dimensions (p. 38, and cat. 157, p. 227) to Everdingen’s 1644 Scandinavian trip, but she feels the Harvard work and her cat. 38 are most likely from the 1660s.
- Acquisition and Rights
- Credit Line
- The Maida and George Abrams Collection, Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
- Accession Year
- Object Number
- European and American Art
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- Publication History
Tentoonstelling van Schilderijen en Tekeningen, auct. cat. (Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1964), cat. no. 47, p. 38, repr. p. 62
Franklin W. Robinson, Selections from the Collection of Dutch Drawings of Maida and George Abrams, exh. cat., Jewett Arts Center (Wellesley, MA, 1969), cat. 50, p. xi, repr.
William W. Robinson, Seventeenth-Century Dutch Drawings: A Selection from the Maida and George Abrams Collection, exh. cat., H. O. Zimman, Inc. (Lynn, MA, 1991), cat. no. 40, pp. 98-99, repr.
Eckhard Schaar, ed., Rembrandt und sein Jahrhundert: Niederlandische Zeichnungen in der Hamburger Kunsthallae, exh. cat., Hamburger Kunsthalle (Hamburg, 1994), under cat. no. 43, pp. 146-47
Edward Saywell, Behind the Line: The Materials and Techniques of Old Master Drawings, Harvard University Art Museums Bulletin, Harvard University Art Museums (Cambridge, 1998), vol. 6, no. 2, cat. no. 40, p. 29
Alice I. Davies, The Drawings of Allart van Everdingen: A Complete Catalogue, Including the Studies for Reynard the Fox, Davaco Publishers (Doornspijk, 2007), cat. no. 39, pp. 29–30, 38, 52, 77, and 173, repr.
William W. Robinson and Susan Anderson, Drawings from the Age of Bruegel, Rubens, and Rembrandt: Highlights from the Collection of the Harvard Art Museums, exh. cat., Harvard Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 2016), cat. no. 34, pp. 127-129, repr. p. 128; watermark p. 376
- Exhibition History
Tentoonstelling van Schilderijen en Tekeningen, Gebr. Douwes, Amsterdam, 04/28/1964 - 05/28/1964
Selections from the Collection of Dutch Drawings of Maida and George Abrams, Hopkins Center Art Galleries, Hanover, 03/27/1969 - 04/28/1969; Wellesley College Museum of Art, Wellesley, 05/04/1969 - 06/04/1969; Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence, 09/17/1969 - 10/12/1969; University of Connecticut Museum of Art, Storrs, 10/18/1969 - 11/16/1969
Seventeenth-Century Dutch Drawings: A Selection from the Maida and George Abrams Collection, Rijksprentenkabinet, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 02/23/1991 - 04/18/1991; Albertina Gallery, Vienna, 05/16/1991 - 06/30/1991; The Morgan Library & Museum, New York, 01/22/1992 - 04/22/1992; Harvard University Art Museums, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 10/10/1992 - 12/06/1992
Behind the Line: The Materials and Techniques of Old Master Drawings, Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, 10/03/1998 - 12/30/1998
- Subjects and Contexts
Dutch, Flemish, & Netherlandish Drawings
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