Photo © President and Fellows of Harvard College
Gallery Text

Aristide Bruant, a cabaret owner, singer, and songwriter who exhibited Toulouse-Lautrec’s work in his establishment, gave this painting its title. Bruant’s songs were often about the condition of the urban poor and the theme of excessive drinking. The model for the sitter in this composition is Suzanne Valadon, a former circus performer who was Toulouse-Lautrec’s mistress for two years. A decade after this painting was created, Valadon began making her own drawings, and later in life she was a well-known artist. Here, Valadon’s scowl, slumped pose, and darkened eyes befit Bruant’s title perfectly, while the single glass and half-empty bottle of wine on the table suggest she drinks alone. The sketchy application of paint, which was diluted with turpentine and then brushed over an underdrawing approximates the hazy, indistinct perception of the café that the inebriated sitter would have through her halfclosed eyes. Many of Toulouse-Lautrec’s contemporaries depicted the social phenomenon of alcoholism among women, which was a growing concern in medical circles.

Identification and Creation
Object Number
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French (Albi 1864 - 1901 Malromé)
The Hangover (Suzanne Valadon)
Other Titles
Original Language Title: Gueule de Bois / La Buveuse
Work Type
Persistent Link
Level 1, Room 1220, European Art, 19th–20th century, Collection of Maurice Wertheim, Class of 1906
View this object's location on our interactive map
Physical Descriptions
Oil on canvas
47 x 55.3 cm (18 1/2 x 21 3/4 in.)
framed: 71.2 x 79 x 9 cm (28 1/16 x 31 1/8 x 3 9/16 in.)
Inscriptions and Marks
  • Signed: l.r.: HTLautrec
  • inscription: Back of canvas, handwritte in black chalk or crayon: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
  • inscription: On stretcher, handwritten in black ink(?): 47018
  • label: verso, rectangular with red border, blue printed ink: Customs and Excise Canada / Oct 15 1945 / E. Mayland [signed, blue ink] Officer / Outside Division / MONTREAL, P.Q.
  • label: verso, rectangle, black ink: Lautrec No. [printed, black ink] 10869 / Femme assise
  • label: verso, printed, rectangle with serrated edges: 6522
  • label: verso, printed, rectangle with serrated edges: 2,420
  • label: verso, rectangle with red on ends, graphite: Picture #6
  • label: verso, rectangle with cut corners, red border, red ink: Toulouse-Lautrec / (Henri de) / At the Café [underlined] / V.H. 187
  • label: verso, printed, square: CONSIGN NO. / 18 1/2 [graphite] DATE / 21 3/4 [graphite] / LOT. NO. REMARKS
  • label: verso, square, printed in red, under yellow printed label: DAY & MEYER
  • label: verso, square, printed in yellow, over red label: DAY & MEYER / MURRAY & YOUNG / FLOOR / ROOM / PRICE 22 [in black marker]
  • label: verso, white label, rectangle, black ballpoint : 21 ptg
  • label: verso, blue label, blue printed and typewritten text: Wildenstein & Co., Inc. - 19 East 64 St. - New York 21[printed] / Loan [typewritten] Exhibition [printed] 6 Post-Impressionists [typewritten] Date [printed] 4/8-5/8, 1948 [typewritten] / Artist [printed] Lautrec [typewritten] Title [printed] La Buveuse, or Gueule de Bois [typewritten] / Lender [printed] Anonymous [typewritten] No. [printed] 26 [typewritten]
?Aristide Bruant, Paris. Maurice Masson, sold [through his sale, Drouot, Paris, June 22, 1911, lot 40]. [Stephen Bourgeois, New York, 1911] [1], sold; to Sir William Cornelius Van Horne, Montreal, 1911, by descent; to the Van Horne family; sold [through Parke-Bernet, New York, January 24, 1946, lot 6]; to Maurice Wertheim, New York, bequest; to Fogg Art Museum, 1951

[1] Stephane Bourgeois was named as lender to the 1913 Armory show, however, per Janet M. Brooke's "Discerning Tastes: Montreal Collectors 1880-1920," (1989, pg. 62), it is known that William Van Horne sent the works to the 1913 Armory show with Bourgeois acting on his behalf.
Acquisition and Rights
Credit Line
Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Bequest from the Collection of Maurice Wertheim, Class of 1906
Accession Year
Object Number
European and American Art
The Harvard Art Museums encourage the use of images found on this website for personal, noncommercial use, including educational and scholarly purposes. To request a higher resolution file of this image, please submit an online request.
Publication History

Gustave Coquiot, H. de Toulouse-Lautrec, A. Blaizot (Paris, France, 1913), repr. p. 145

International Exhibition of Modern Art, exh. cat., Armory of the 69th Infantry (New York, NY, 1913), no. 1061

A. Brook, "Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec", The Arts (September 1923), p. 142

Maurice Joyant, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1864-1901 (Paris, France, 1926), vol. I, pp. 98, 267, repr. p. 87

Gotthard Jedlicka, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Bruno Cassirer (Berlin, Germany, 1929), repr. p. 109

The Sir William Van Horne Collection, exh. cat., Art Association of Montreal (Montreal, Canada, 1933), no. 148

E. Schaub-Koch, Psychoanalyse d'un peintre moderne (Paris, France, 1935), p. 178

Gerstle Mack, Toulouse-Lautrec, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (New York, NY, 1938), p. 293

Jacques Lassaigne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Hyperion Press (London, England and New York, NY, 1939), p. 14, repr. p. 76

J. Rinaldini, Toulouse-Lautrec (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1942), repr. p. 38

Loan Exhibition of Great Paintings in Aid of Allied Merchant Seamen, exh. cat., Art Gallery of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1944), no. 79

Alfred M. Frankfurter, "Today's Collectors: Modern Milestones", Art News (June 1946), vol. XLV, no. 4, p. 64; repr. in b/w p. 30

French Painting since 1870, lent by Maurice Wertheim, Class of 1906, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, MA, 1946), pp. 34-37, repr. p. 35

Twenty Distinguished Modern Paintings (sale of the van Horne collection), auct. cat., Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. (New York, NY, January 24, 1946), p. 10

Six Masters of Post-Impressionism, exh. cat., Wildenstein & Company (New York, NY, 1948), no. 26

La Peinture Française Depuis 1870: Collection Maurice Wertheim, exh. cat., Tom Taylor (Québec, Canada, 1949), no. 15, pp. pp. 42-44

A Collector's Exhibition: Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Masterpieces from the Collections of Members of the Advisory Committee of the Institute of Fine Arts., exh. cat., Knoedler & Co. Inc. (New York, NY, 1950), no. 15

Alfred M. Frankfurter, "Toulouse-Lautrec: the Artist", ARTnews Annual (1951), no. 20, pp. 87-126; repr. p. 100

Francis Jourdain and Jean Adhémar, T-Lautrec: Essai sur Toulouse-Lautrec, P. Tisne (Paris, France, 1952), repr. p. 26

Jacques Lassaigne, Lautrec, Skira (Geneva, Switzerland, 1953), p. 36, repr. p. 26

Howard Devree, "By French Masters: Memorable Loan Show in Philadelphia", The New York Times (New York, NY, July 7 1957), p. 70, p. 70

Henri Perruchot, La Vie de Toulouse-Lautrec (Paris, France, 1958), p. 137

Vincent van Gogh, The Complete Letters of Vincent van Gogh (Greenwich, CT, 1958), no. 470

The Maurice Wertheim Catalogue: Modern French Art-- Monet to Picasso, exh. cat., North Carolina Museum of Art (Raleigh, NC, 1960), p. 56, repr. p. 57

The Maurice Wertheim Collection: Manet to Picasso, exh. cat., The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (Houston, TX, 1962), p. 52, pl. 21

1913 Armory Show: Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition, exh. cat., Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute (Utica, NY, 1963), repr.

Milton W. Brown, The Story of the Armory Show, The Joseph H. Hirshorn Foundation (New York, NY, 1963), repr. p. 294

Philippe Huisman and M. G. Dortu, Lautrec par Lautrec (Paris, France, 1964), pp. 59, 253

Maurice Sérullaz, Les Peintres Maudits, Librairie Hachette (Paris, France, 1968), repr. p. 14

G. Caproni and G. M. Sugana, L'Opera Completa di Toulouse-Lautrec (Milan, Italy, 1969), no. 227a

"The Calendar", Harvard University Gazette (Cambridge, MA, June 19, 1970), repr. b/w p. 8

Toulouse-Lautrec, Casa Editrice G. C. Sansoni (Florence, Italy, 1970), repr.

M. G. Dortu, Toulouse-Lautrec et son oeuvre (New York, NY, 1971), vol. II, no. P340, p. 167

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, exh. cat., Maine State Museum (Augusta, ME, 1972), no. 37

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism, Abbeville Press (New York, NY, 1980), repr. in b/w p. 290

Bogomila Welsh-Ovcharov, Vincent van Gogh and the Birth of Cloisonism, exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1981), pp. 319, 340

Vivien Raynor, "Art: Impressionist Show at the I.B.M. Gallery" [review], The New York Times (New York, NY, April 26, 1985), p. C24

Sandy Easterbrook, "Technical Examination and Comparison of Two Toulouse-Lautrec Paintings in the Wertheim Collection of the Fogg Art Museum" (thesis (certificate in conservation), Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, 1985), Unpublished, pp. 1-28 passim

Kristin A. Mortimer and William G. Klingelhofer, Harvard University Art Museums: A Guide to the Collections, Harvard University Art Museums and Abbeville Press (Cambridge and New York, 1986), no. 222, p. 195, repr. in b/w

John O'Brian, Degas to Matisse: the Maurice Wertheim Collection, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. and Fogg Art Museum (New York, NY and Cambridge, MA, 1988), no. 16, pp. 81-83, repr. in color p. 82

Janet M. Brooke, Discerning Tastes: Montreal Collectors 1880-1920, exh. cat., The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Montreal, Canada, 1989), fig. 23, p. 62

Edgar Peters Bowron, European Paintings Before 1900 in the Fogg Art Museum: A Summary Catalogue including Paintings in the Busch-Reisinger Museum, Harvard University Art Museums (Cambridge, MA, 1990), p. 90, color plate; p. 131, 256, repr. b/w cat. no. 388

The Maurice Wertheim Collection and Selected Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings and Drawings in the Fogg Art Museum, exh. cat., Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (New York, NY, 1990), repr. in color no. 22, p. 75

Toulouse-Lautrec, exh. cat., South Bank Centre/Reunion des Musées Nationaux (London, England and Paris, France, 1991), no. 46, p. 190, repr. in b/w

Claire Freches and Jose Freches, Toulouse-Lautrec: Les Lumieres de la Nuit, Decouvertes Gallimard/Reunion des Musées Nationaux (Paris, France, 1991), repr. in color on title page, p. 11

Gale B. Murray, Toulouse-Lautrec: the Formative Years, 1878-1891, The Clarendon Press (Oxford, England, 1991), repr. in b/w p. 164; text pp. 163-165

Daniele Devynck, Toulouse-Lautrec, Profils de l'Art, Chene (Paris, France, 1992), repr. in color no. 2, p. 29

Frank Milner, Toulouse-Lautrec, Smithmark (New York, NY, 1992), repr. in color pps. 56-57, text p. 57

Gale B. Murray, ed., Toulouse-Lautrec: a Retrospective, Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, Inc. (New York, NY, 1992), repr. as colorplate 26

Gilles Neyret, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec 1864-1901, Benedikt Taschen Verlag (Cologne, Germany, 1993), repr. in color p. 40

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (Japan, 1994), repr. in color, fig. 12

"Toulouse-Lautrec and Women", exh. cat., Basil & Elise Goulandris Foundation (Andros, 2001), p. 21, repr. as fig. 4

Daniele Devynck, "Toulouse-Lautrec and Women", Toulouse-Lautrec Woman as Mtyh, Basil & Elise Goulandris Foundation and Umberto Allemandi & C. (Andros and Turin, 2001), pp. 19-30, p. 21 and repr. as fig. 4

Jill Berk Jimenez, ed., Dictionary of Artists' Models, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers (London and Chicago, 2001), pp. 537-540, repr.

Gilles Néret, Renoir: Painter of Happiness, Taschen (Köln, Germany, 2001), repr. in color, p. 276

Sarah Kianovsky, Three Women: Early Portraits by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, brochure, Fogg Art Museum (Cambridge, 2002), repr.

Pierre Cabanne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Editions Pierre Terrail (Paris, 2003), p. 56; repr. in color pp. 58-59

Richard Thomson and Philip Dennis Cate, Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art/Art Institute of Chicago (Washington DC / Chicago IL, 2005), p. 69; repr. p. 85 as fig. 92; no. 92 in checklist, p. 256

Picasso: Five Themes, exh. cat., Pola Museum of Art (Kanagawa, Japan, 2006), p. 38, repr. as fig. 1

Moira Egan and Cushing-Malloy, Inc, Bar Napkin Sonnets (Ann Arbor, 2009), repr. in color on front cover

John Varriano, Wine: A Cultural History, Reaktion Books (London, 2010), pp. 201-202, repr. p. 201 as fig. 96

Louis-Antoine Prat, Le dessin français au XIXe siècle, Somogy Éditions d'Art (Paris, 2011), p. 553

Colin B. Bailey and The Frick Collection, Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting, exh. cat., Yale University Press (U.S.) (New Haven, CT and London, England, 2012), p. 206, repr, fig. 12

Elizabeth M. Rudy, "Researching the Wertheim Collection at the Harvard Art Museums", Collections: A Journal for Museum and Archives Professionals (Summer 2014), Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 301-6

Roland Halbert, La Saison qui Danse ou Carnet de Zigzags pour Toulouse-Lautrec, Editions Multilingues Fraction (Paris, 2016), p. 46, repr.

Helen Burnham, Mary Weaver Chapin, and Joanna Wendel, Toulouse-Lautrec and the Stars of Paris, exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Boston, 2019), pp. 13-14, repr. p. 14 as fig. 3

Junie Wang, The Narrative of Art: Unveiling Stories behind 21 Masterpiece Paintings, Locus Publishing (Taipei, 2022), p. 139, repr.

Exhibition History

Exhibition of Modern Art, Armory of the 69th Infantry, New York, 01/01/1913 - 12/31/1913

Exhibition: A selection from the collection of the late Sir William Van Horne KCMG 1843-1915, Art Association of Montreal, Montreal, 01/01/1933 - 12/31/1933

Loan Exhibition of Great Paintings in Aid of Allied Merchant Seamen, Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 02/04/1944 - 03/15/1944

French Painting since 1870 lent by Maurice Wertheim, Class of 1906, Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, 06/01/1946 - 09/07/1946; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 07/01/1953 - 09/13/1953

Six Masters of Post-Impressionism, Wildenstein Gallery, New York, New York, 04/08/1948 - 05/08/1948

La Peinture Française depuis 1870, Musée de la Province de Quebec, 07/12/1949 - 08/07/1949

A Collector's Exhibition, M. Knoedler & Co., Newport, 02/06/1950 - 02/25/1950

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 07/01/1952 - 09/14/1952

French Paintings Since 1870 from the Maurice Wertheim Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 06/01/1953 - 09/30/1953

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 06/15/1957 - 09/15/1957

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, 06/10/1958 - 08/31/1958

The Maurice Wertheim Collection: Modern French Art--Monet to Picasso, North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 06/17/1960 - 09/04/1960

The Maurice Wertheim Collection: Manet to Picasso, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Houston, 06/13/1962 - 09/02/1962

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, 06/20/1963 - 09/01/1963

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, 06/24/1965 - 09/07/1965

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence, 09/03/1968 - 09/22/1968

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, Montgomery Museum of Art, Montgomery, 06/01/1971 - 09/30/1971

The Maurice Wertheim Collection, Maine State Museum, Augusta, 06/01/1972 - 09/01/1972

Manet to Matisse: The Maurice Wertheim Collection, IBM Gallery of Science and Art, New York, 04/09/1985 - 05/25/1985

The Maurice Wertheim Collection and Selected Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings and Drawings in the Fogg Art Museum, Isetan Department Store, Tokyo, 03/01/1990 - 04/10/1990; Yamaguchi Prefectural Museum of Art, 04/14/1990 - 05/13/1990

Three Women: Early Portraits by Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Fogg Art Museum, 04/06/2002 - 07/21/2002

Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 03/20/2005 - 06/12/2005; The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 07/16/2005 - 10/10/2005

Re-View: S427 Impressionist & Postimpressionist Art, Harvard Art Museums/Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Cambridge, 08/02/2008 - 06/18/2011

32Q: 1220 Wertheim, Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, 11/16/2014 - 03/25/2019; Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, 06/17/2019 - 01/01/2050

Toulouse-Lautrec and the Stars of Paris, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 04/07/2019 - 08/04/2019

Subjects and Contexts

Google Art Project

Related Works

This record has been reviewed by the curatorial staff but may be incomplete. Our records are frequently revised and enhanced. For more information please contact the Division of European and American Art at